As early as 20 years ago, the Internet chat room was in the ascendant. At that time, the young people who claimed to be "new human beings" first experienced and strangers who were far away or close at hand.Although I do n’t know that the other party is a man or a woman, a person or a dog, but watching the hazy and ambiguous words on the screen can also be confused and have infinite reveries.Netizens also became a funny bridge, appearing in various movies and TV series.The novel of the theme of online dating quickly replaced Qiong Yao -style stories and injected new vitality into "romantic love".
As online dating products continue to iterate, online dating is becoming more and more common.According to the latest research report released by the Communist Research Network, as of the end of 2021, about 30 million people across the country have been active on dating platforms on the major lines.Capital has already smelled business opportunities and charged in all aspects of matching: I want to see more information about each other, show more photos, open voice chat, and every further, we have to charge.However, regardless of how these products are subdivided by the user group, and how each user is screened layer by layer, it is really more lost to meet offline.Only a few lucky people really found the right partner on the Internet.Choose more and lose more.
In the same person, we may be excited when we meet online, but it may be sieved because a certain information does not match.Love cannot be calculated, it is almost the iron law of "romantic love" movies.By the third part of 2016, the British classic love comedy "BJ Single Diary" directly set the male second as a mathematician and handsome billionaire who founded social networks.His precision computing system is certainly better than Mr. Darcy.After ridiculing the ridicule of the businessman who tried to match the emotion, Mr. Daxi seemed to defend the last position of human beings: love.
So a group of social products later, from Tinder (temporarily translated flame) to soul (temporarily translated soul partner), focused on a kind of "return to return to truth", abandoned complex personal data, only rely on images or sounds to let users choose as much as possible, try to make as much as possible as possibleBack to sensory intuition, not reason.But the situation still does not seem to be better.
From pure text chat to personal information, to pictures and sounds, while the Internet releases fantasy, it seems that it will inevitably eliminate the truth.What people really feel disappointed in addition to the gap between the real fantasy?
As early as around 2005, French sociologist Eva Illouz prestorsed this trend.At that time, in "Cold and intimacy", she sharply pointed out that in the future of marketization, emotions may become an entity that can be evaluated, inspected, discussed, negotiated, quantified, and even traded.Calm, rational, and increasingly influenced the utilitarianism and being "let go".In other words, the era of "cold and intimacy" is coming.
For example, the "emotional value" of the "emotional value" originally originated from the field of economics and marketing has now become a high -frequency word in dating and dating; endless online classes teach you scientifically, and I can pay for it now.So love becomes like this: we polish ourselves like a product manager, packing ourselves like a sales champion, just to exchange a partner who can provide "emotional value" for equivalent."
"Cold and intimacy", [French] Eva Yiluo, translated by Wang Li, Pu Rui Culture | Hunan People’s Publishing House, April 2023.
This emotional commodity impact is not just the intimate relationship between modern people.Over the years, Elos has been enriching her research dimension for emotions.In her opinion, the rapidly changing and elusive emotions are becoming a rational object, and consolidate the logic of "emotional capitalism" from different aspects.
For example, since the 1960s, psychological counseling has gradually become part of the mainstream system in the United States, and people have been encouraged to give new significance to the past.The psychological treatment of this national level of psychological treatment is to a greater extent to make people emotionally stable and better adapt to society."Emotional health has become a new type of product."
In April of this year, Ilos’s "Cold and Heritage" published the Chinese version.We interviewed Ilos through emails, talked from the current online dating, extended to the new phenomenon derived from the intimate relationship, and then transitioned to a broader emotional level, to care about the crisis that needs to be vigilant in the trend.
During the interview, Yi Luos was surprised by the nakedness of the "emotional value", and also worried about the popularity of psychological counseling in recent years.When asked about the impact brought by artificial intelligence such as ChatGPT, Elos admitted that the seemingly unique emotions are actually the most easily controlled. What really distinguishes people and machines is consciousness, consciousness, and critical thinking.Do not be "fools with excess rational and self -consciousness".
Eva Ilos, born in 1961, is currently a professor of sociology and anthropology at the University of Hebrew University.The main research areas include emotional sociology, gender sociology and cultural sociology.She was once called "Times Weekly" by Germany as "one of the 12 most influential thinkers in the world".
Online friends make people
Show yourself like selling products
Beijing News: Your analysis of online dating software has also attracted attention in the Chinese world.In recent years, China has also appeared in a series of dating software similar to Tinder, but many netizens have experienced the gap between online and offline to varying degrees.Start a new round of search.Why does the "goodwill" on the Internet frequently encounter the difficulty of "monetization"?
Eva Ilos (hereinafter referred to as Ilos): The mind has an incredible ability. We can imagine what we do n’t exist and have strong emotions for it.Even though I knew that Anna Calenina was a fictional figure in the novel, I still cried when she read her suicide.In fact, there is a great connection between emotion and imagination.
This is ironic because we think emotion should be the most authentic part of itself.But in fact, emotions can effectively associate us with imaginative works, which also includes the imagination we created.
Secondly, I think that meeting with a person and discovering that he/she is attractive, this is a very different cognitive and emotional process that is very different from the network.The network acquaintance must first develop through the data page described by text and the beautified photos to the offline to understand the true voice and body of this person.These two acquaintances are very different from the evaluation of others.
Stills of the movie "Single Diary: Bridget Jones’s Baby (2016).
In other words, we will face two problems: first, the people we meet are not as good as our expectations; second, we will find that it is difficult to switch between these two models -the inner self -projection we use from onlineThe communication mode is switched to a real object that can move, speak, and ask me to pay attention.
I think that if you want to fall in love, you don’t need to know too much about the information of another person.Generally, we fall into love through a rapid and overall judgment, and we will respond immediately to everything including physical movements, sounds, and language.
In the personal information page on the Internet, the information will be passed to us in different ways.It is decoded by grammar, fragmented and unconnected.You will receive some scattered information here a little bit.Therefore, you will not use the senses to process this information like someone face -to -face, but to deal with it through a cognitive language mechanism.This is a very different way to combine others.
Beijing News: You mentioned in the book that since the 1960s, emotional and emotional products are increasingly bundled. People’s feelings of love have gradually needed to confirm the consumption experience.Today, what is the relationship between the popularity of the online dating platform and this wave of emotional commodity?
Elos: When analyzing, we should distinguish technology and commodity, although the two are closely related.I think that since the beginning of the 20th century, the interaction of romantic relations has begun to be commercialized.Restaurant, bars, movies, vacations, etc. are just some ways of life and experience of couples or couples.The field of casual commodity has become the main position of people’s encounter and romantic relations.
Dating dating website is another type of commercialization. It does not take the purpose of production of pleasure, unlike restaurants or resorts.It is to commercialize all kinds of subtle aspects in interaction.At this point, Tinder is the worst company.For example, if you want to put four photos instead of a photo on your personal homepage, you have to pay; if you want to check who the people who send you "like", you have to pay;You have to pay for the matching netizens who accidentally and wrong; if you want to send a "super like" to others, you still have to pay.The minimum operations in these social applications require payment.
They usually need to work similar to bureaucracy and waste a lot of time.You have to produce the products you are consumed, that is, a romantic relationship.You feel that you are a product in the competitive market.Therefore, you will use the same marketing method and brand label to sell yourself.
Social application SOUL in the application store.
Beijing News: You once said in an interview that applications like Tinder have led to the separation of sexual system and emotional system.Judging from the historical process of the Sex Revolution, many scholars believe that the separation of sex is the key stage to break through the narrative of "romantic love".But do you point out that this separation to a certain extent institutionalize the power given to men. Can you start talking about this?
Yilos: Typical men or hegemonic men will not be fragile.Male temperament is about strength, endurance, as well as the ability to suffer pain and winning the game, coupled with the ability to fight against the enemy.Don’t forget that only men can become fighters in ancient times.Restraint about fragile emotions will give people strength, and men -whether they are aware of or not -do not want to give up this power.
On the other hand, women tend to treat emotions and romantic love particularly seriously. Sometimes I wonder if they are too serious?Men use their sex to obtain power and status.Women are sometimes like this, but they are still much less than men.Women’s utilization to establish connections.This causes the fundamental differences between the two gender.
There are many reasons for women: women are taught to care for others; women are related social creatures.They often need marriage and mother positions to gain social status and economic stability.Men’s sexuality in sex can allow them to obtain power, because in any romantic interaction, the party that shows transcendence, indifferent or less concerned will have more power.
The popularity of "emotional value":
People may be fully attached to AI
Beijing News: If the end of the last century, romantic love will also be connected with roses, candlelight dinner, etc., which requires external products to confirm the intensity of love; then today, the scope of transaction seems to have extended to "emotion" itself.In the past two years, a dating platform in China has often been able to see a lot of self -introduction saying "can provide emotional value" (that is, you can perceive the emotions of your partner and provide appropriate support), when "emotion" and "value" "Binding, this means what changes in the intimacy of modern people?
Yilo Si: Oh my god, there is such a saying!When I first read "Can provide emotional value", I felt funny.But at least, it is very straightforward, that is, this is a kind of exchange, a transaction, and emotional support work is part of this transaction.It also shows that emotional and emotional health has become an important way for people to think about their romantic relationship.
Whether in the workplace or in intimacy, good management of emotions has become a key social skill to acquire social status and solid intimate relationships.Now, individuals have become their own managers.Therefore, people must mobilize all their emotions and interpersonal skills to ensure professional performance, as well as in the field of intimacy.
Stills of the movie "The Social Network (2010).
Beijing News: The respect for emotional value is changing people’s views on AI (artificial intelligence) lovers.What do you think of "24 hours online and never disappear" AI lovers (such as replikas)?Does humans really have feelings for machines?
Yilos: This is a very interesting question.I think this is actually the most concerned issue when we are discussing Transhumanism.(Editor’s Note: Super Humanism is an international cultural intelligence movement. It supports the use of science and technology to enhance people’s spirit, physical strength, ability, and qualifications, and overcome some limitations of human unnecessary or unnecessary limitations, such as disability, illness, diseases, diseases, diseases, diseases, diseases, diseases, diseases, and diseasesPain, body aging, and accidental death.) I think whether humans will attach to artificial intelligence machines and how to maintain and attach themselves with them will be as important as the continuation of life and even more important.
I am not sure if human beings will fall in love with artificial intelligence lovers, because falling in love often occurs under an uncertain state.Uncertainty is established only in front of the creatures that can be freely selected.At present, artificial intelligence does not exist in uncertainty.
Stills of the movie "Who do you think I am" (Celle Que Vous Croyez (2019).
But I also think that humans are fully possible to attach to artificial intelligence machines.Think about our emotional attachment to the dog. The dog will not talk to us, and the dog’s understanding of the world (I think) is not conscious.But even if we know this, it does not affect our deep attachment to dogs.
I am not saying that dogs are like robots. I want to say that we have developed a lot of non -human attachment options (ReperToires of Attachment), which seems to be very loose for us, and this option can be increased.
In addition, the most optimistic thing: In the artificial intelligence world, it is male expectations like REPLIKAS.Men with Hegemonic Masculinity, they often expect women to become the object of their will. Women only have limited emotions and thoughts, never judge them, do not do small questions, and can support them as always.
When we talk about a certain technology, talk about the objectification it brings will be easier to understand, but this objectization is also a social process, and this process greatly reflects how men think and how to treat men and how to treat it.Women.For me, the question is whether men and women can use this technology.After all, in the perspective of mainstream women, men are often subject rather than objects.
Stills of the movie "The Social Network (2010).
Pain in intimate relationships
Not from native families
Beijing News: For many years, you have been paying attention to the emotional problems of modern people.Since "Consuming The Romantic Utopia), your research is at the intersection of emotional, cultural and capitalist issues in sociology, you also claim to be emotional sociologists, care about emotional practice, and depend on in attachment toChanges in the concept of emotion.I am curious. In the beginning, how did emotions enter your research field?Does it come from the trouble in daily life?After all, in the sociological tradition, the emotion with subjective colors seems to be deviated from seeking neutral and objective sociology.
Yi Luos: When I was still a girl, love was the thing I care about most.Like many young girls, I also read love novels and watch romantic comedy.Later, feminism and my exploration of feminism disappeared the central position of love in my life.Furthermore, as a French, I am deeply trained in sociological tradition. It believes that class is very important.
Therefore, I would like to know if Burdiel’s pioneering analysis of culture and art can be revealed that there is a huge difference in the appreciation of culture and art in different classes -applied to emotional research, especially in love, especially in love, especially in love, especially in love, especially in love, especially in love, especially in love, especially in love, especially in loveCome.See if class analysis can also be used in love and emotional research, whether people from different class will have different emotional experiences and emotional expression.In the end, it was true.
Stills of the movie "The Social Network (2010).
Beijing News: In the latest published "The End of Love", you continue to pay attention to how capitalism and modern culture have changed our emotional and romantic life.In the preface, you mentioned that your purpose of emotional research in the past two decades is to insist that "the disorderly analysis of private and intimate life cannot come from psychology."So, what do you think that in the field of emotion, what is the contribution that sociology can provide?
Yilos: The huge contribution of sociology is that there are many confusion and pain in romantic relationships, but many of them have nothing to do with your childhood experience, but related to the following conditions of modernity: individualism; require competitiveness to be competitive, Capitalist workplace of autonomy and independent skills; the myth about choice and freedom, it allows us to face many choices alone; and uncertainty.All these are the reason why love is becoming more and more difficult -although it is only a part of the reason.
Beijing News: In the process of using emotion as a research object, have your own emotional position or emotional fluctuations have affected your research?In other words, when emotion is a method, how would you view the so -called "value neutral" in sociological research?
Yilos: Of course, I think it should be neutral, although this is an ideal that is difficult to achieve.Just like we will respect a judge who tries to adhere to neutral (even if it is not perfect), not a judge who has not intended to maintain neutrality from the beginning, because the latter will make his prejudice (discriminates against blacks, targets, targetingJewish or any other prejudice) preferential judgment.
We can strive to achieve a neutral value through various ways: the words of each family, weighing different interpretations, speaking with data, and allowing field work experience to change our prerequisites, explore a established social facts in multiple pathsWhat are the different consequences.Although we can’t do the complete value neutral, we can work in this direction.Try to try hard, it will be different.
Emotion is not the only truth,
It is even impossible to distinguish between people and machines
Beijing News: In Marxism’s research context, capitalism is considered to be the culprit of alienation of human beings into emotional machine components.But you challenged this view and put forward "emotional capitalism", thinking that capitalism not only does not lead to emotional recession, but has created a new emotional culture. Can you start talking about this?
Elos: Marx, Weorg Simmel, or Norbert Elias all treat modernity as a Cooling of Passions.According to the views of these sociologists, whether it is bureaucracy, machine or mechanized production process, it will lead to dehumanization.The motivation for warm cooling is the key to their use of modernity.This is because people are alienated, because large and non -personal bureaucratic structures are in charge of people’s lives, because more self -control capabilities are needed in capitalist workplaces.
If you follow the logic of this discussion, then emotions and emotions should become less and less.but it is not the truth.The 20th century witnessed the rise of a new culture, the culture of psychology and self -improvement.Emotions have become stronger through psychology and mass media, and emotions have also been commercialized, and then it has become a source of giant lips.
The key social places have also become a market for sales. It also encourages you to change and shape emotions for mental health, happiness or enjoyment.Modern people have more self -control ability, and they are more aware of their emotions, and they also pay more attention to emotional management in interpersonal relationships.
Beijing News: Indeed, one of the rise of this self -improvement culture is the popularity of psychological counseling.You mentioned in the book that, in the late 1960s, a healing emotional style has gradually become a social trend in France.People face up to "emotions" by sorting out their own narratives and digesting "pain".To this day, this healing emotional style represented by psychological counseling has gone through more than half a century in Western society. According to your observation, is the focus of psychological counseling changed?What about people’s views on psychological counseling?
Yilos: I think psychoanalysis has been committed to helping people manage their own pain in the past. A successful psychoanalysis can allow someone to work and love well through it.That’s it.After the 1970s, the scope of psychology has become increasingly expanded, and self has a new goal.It is not enough to not feel pain or be able to love and work.
Now, you need to give full play to all your potential.As a result, people turned themselves into an operable machine.Happiness and self -realization have become new goals.These are more difficult to achieve.They can construct a completely different life.
"In Treatment" (2008) Still stills
Beijing News: In China, this trend is relatively late.It was not until recent years that the psychological counseling of various genres became popular.Compared with the state that was previously suppressed and ignored, emotions were increasingly named and rationalized.
Today’s people are generally encouraged because of "emotional finally obtained face -to -face". However, in 2019, you are bluntly stated in an interview with the French "New Observer" magazine that this trend needs to be vigilant.
Yilos: Living in emotional culture is much better than living in a depressed culture.But the question is how emotions should be expressed.I found that the problem is that emotions have become the foundation of reality.People treat their emotions too seriously, so that emotions have become the only way for people to experience real.
In this way, everyone’s own feelings are the most important.You make me feel the reality of our relationship.This means that people will retreat back to the subjective field, and individuals have become the only Solipsistic Monads.As a result, the reality of other levels became not so important.Subjective feelings are equivalent to the truth, and it has also become its own legitimate and legal reasons.
Beijing News: This year, ChatGPT (chat robot program) is discussing globally.The concerns of "more and more like a person" reflect the fear of "more and more people like machines".Do you think that in the future of the rapid development of artificial intelligence, will emotions still be the last chip of human beings?
Yilos: I don’t think so.Emotion is easy to be controlled, and it is also easy to adapt to a non -human world.In a very famous science fiction "Bionic people dream of electronic sheep?""Do Androids Dream?), Humans live in a world where robots and humans can’t distinguish.(Editor’s Note: In 1968, American science fiction novelist Philip K. Dick’s masterpiece, the movie "Silver Wing Killer" is adapted from this book.)
"Will the bionic people dream of electronic sheep?", [Mei] Philip K. Dick, translated by Xu Donghua, translation of Linlin Publishing House, October 2017.
The only way to distinguish them is "EMPathy Test", because only humans can feel the pain of others.But I don’t believe this.Because emotion is related to beliefs and cognition, if you can manipulate faith and cognition, you can control emotions.Therefore, we should not rely on emotions to distinguish between people and robots, but we should rely on consciousness, consciousness, and critical thinking to distinguish.
Special translation/Wang Li
School pair/Lu Qian