With the advent of the new situation of the epidemic, more and more people may accidentally "yang"!
What should we do when we suddenly find ourselves?
If you are a relative or friend Yang, how can we recommend it?
Next, I will share with you how we fully responded in the new situation- "New Crown -Positive Personnel Self -Customs Book", which is convenient for everyone to respond scientifically and restore health as soon as possible.
This manual is compiled by Li Zhihong and Chai Xiangping, the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, and 11 other personnel such as Zhang Mengxi and Wang Yina.
Correct nucleic acid/antigen detection
When you receive a positive notification of the new crown nucleic acid detection, or if you perform the fast antigen detection results are positive, you will be defined as a new crown -positive personnel, and your same residents will be defined as a close contact with the new crown.
Positive personnel (including asymptomatic infections and light cases) with home isolation conditions are generally adopted by home isolation measures, and they can also voluntarily choose to go to designated institutions for centralized isolation treatment.
Health monitoring must be strengthened during home isolation. When the 6th and 7th days of isolation, 2 consecutive nucleic acid detection CT value ≥ 35 can be lifted. When the condition worsen, the hospital must be transferred in time.
The close contact with the home isolation conditions takes the 5 Heavenly House isolation measures, and they can also voluntarily choose to concentrate isolation. On the 5th day, the nucleic acid detection is negative to relieve the isolation.
(1) What is the difference between nucleic acid detection and antigen detection?
1. Nucleic acid detection: Nucleic acid testing is the gene in the virus. It is the basis for the diagnosis of the new crown. The nucleic acid detection operation is more complicated, the technical conditions are high, the results of the results are long, but the sensitivity and specificity are high.
2. antigen detection: antigen detection is protein that detects the surface of the virus.
We can understand the antigen as a "clothes" worn by the virus, and the antigen test is the part of the virus "clothes".
The antigen detection has the advantages of simple operation, short results time, and convenient self -detection. It is an important supplement for nucleic acid detection. It can further improve the screening ability of "early discovery".
(Picture source: Gansu Province Disease Prevention and Control Center)
(2) How to self -test the new crown antigen during home isolation?
1. Correct antigen detection
Antigen self -testing process schematic diagram (refer to the specification of specific kit instructions)
Photo source: official website of the National Health and Health Commission
2. Correctly handle the self -testing agent
(1) Positive personnel and close contact: The test results regardless of whether negative or positive, all the samples, sampling tubes, and detection cards after all use should be installed in the sealing bag shall be handled by the management personnel according to the medical waste.
(2) Community residents: When detecting the result is negative, all samples, sampling tubes, detection cards, etc. after use are put into a sealed bag for general garbage treatment.When the test results are positive, refer to the treatment of positive personnel.When the self -test results are positive, no matter whether there are respiratory tract or fever, residents should immediately report to the community (village and town) in the community (village) and cooperate with local epidemic prevention and control measures.
(3) How to detect nucleic acid during home isolation?
Positive personnel and close contacts should detect the nucleic acid detection point specified by the community during the isolation.In order to avoid cross -infections during nucleic acid testing, it is necessary to avoid taking public transport and do personal protection throughout the process.
During the testing process, we should strictly achieve the "five do not two lines and two lines": strictly abide by the "five or not", that is, not to talk, do not touch, stay, do not remove the mask at will, and spit out.", That is, keep the" 3 -meter line "and" 1 meter line ". The 3 -meter line refers to when the sample table is sampled, the tight queuing staff and the sample table are kept 3 meters away.Follow; strictly keep in mind the "first -class", that is, the person who is waiting for the previous sample leaves, the sample staff completes the sterilization of hand, then stepped forward to sample, and quickly put on the mask after the collection.
The home isolation of the positive personnel
(1) Home environment requirements
1. Place requirements of home isolation
(1) Living alone in a room with good ventilation, the room is equipped with personal protective supplies such as thermometer, paper towels, masks, disposable gloves, disinfection agents, and disinfection products and trash cans with lids.The table stool is placed outdoors for non -contact transmission items.
(2) Try to equip a separate bathroom as much as possible to avoid sharing the bathroom with other family members.
(3) When using the air -conditioning system to vent, select the split air conditioner; if the concentrated air conditioner is used, the full air system should be turned off.
2. Home isolation must do a good job of hygiene and epidemic prevention
(1) Multi -ventilation: The indoor windows are opened at least 3 times a day, and each time is not less than 30 minutes.
(2) Wash your hands: Prepare food, before meals, and wearing masks, etc. You should wash your hands or disinfect hands.
(3) Pay attention to cough etiquette: When coughing and sneezing, cover the nose nose with paper towels or elbows; throw the used paper towels to the trash can, and wash your hands or disinfect hands immediately after contacting the air discharge.
(4) Do not share daily necessities: tableware, towels, toothbrushes, clothing and other personal items are used separately and are not placed with others.
(5) Do a good job of daily cleaning and disinfection
1) Date utensils: For 15 minutes of boiling disinfection, you can also use a chlorine disinfection solution with 250 mg/L to 500mg/L for 15 minutes.Disinfeted immediately after each use.
2) Daily high -frequency contact or use items such as tables, mobile phones, switches, etc.: The surface of the item is wiped with a disinfectant containing 500 mg/L with a valid chlorine chlorine, and then washed with water, at least once a day.
3) Ponds and peripherals: Wipe disinfection with a chlorine -containing disinfection solution containing 2000 mg/L, and acts for 30 minutes.When used alone, disinfection once a day; when shared with family, disinfect it after use.
4) The part of the bathroom handle, the faucet, etc. often touch the part: use the chlorine -containing sterilization of 500 mg/L or other disinfection agents that can be used for surface disinfection. After 30 minutes of action, wipe it with water.When used alone, disinfect it once a day; when shared with your family, disinfect it immediately after use.
5) Clothing, sheets, etc.: When you change it frequently, you should place it separately when cleaning. Use a chlorine disinfection agent with 250l to 500mg/L with effective chlorine.
(6) Correctly handle garbage: Domestic garbage is put in double -layer plastic bags and tighten the mouth of the plastic bag to avoid relics and disinfection of its outer surface and sealing./L’s chlorine -containing disinfectant or 75% alcohol spraying to completely humid), and then passed to the door, wearing the N95 mask and latex gloves from the infected residents to place the garbage at the designated position of the community.
(7) Disinfection of pollution items at any time: It should be disinfected at any time by saliva, sputum and other polluting items.When disinfection, use a chlorine -containing disinfectant, 75% alcohol or other disinfection agent that can be used for surface disinfection during disinfection with a valid chlorine chlorine 500 mg/ L to 1000 mg/ L.When dealing with a large amount of pollutants, a disposable water absorption material (dry towel) should be used after being completely covered with a sufficient amount of chlorine disinfection agent with a sufficient amount of 5000 mg/L to 10000mg/L on the water absorption material for more than 30 minutes.Be careful to clean up.Then use a chlorine disinfection agent (drag) with a valid 500mg/L to 1000 mg/L to be polluted and 2 square meters weekly.When dealing with pollutants, you should wear gloves and masks. After processing, you should bathe and change clothes.
(8) In addition to life necessities and medicines, try not to order other express delivery.Adopt a non -contact method when collecting courier and takeaway. When opening the door, you need to standardize the N95 mask and disposable gloves, and do hand -to -hand hygiene before opening the door.
3. Self -protection of the same residence
Try not to directly contact the isolated person, and place table stools outside the room where the isolated person’s residence, so that non -contact types can be passed.When the surface of the pollutants and pollution objects must be directly contacted or treated with the isolated person, we should wear N95 masks, disposable protective clothing, disposable gloves, and keep a distance of more than 1 meter from the isolars.If you have any direct contact with the home isolation, or after leaving his living space, you should clean and disinfect the standard hands.
(2) Daily arrangements
1. Make material reserves during home isolation: Based on the length of the isolation time, prepare sufficient living materials.
1) Food category: staple food (noodles, rice, flour), frozen meat, eggs, milk, dairy products, edible oil, miscellaneous grain beans (millet, brown rice, mung beans, red beans), vegetables, frozen food, dried foods (fungus fungus (fungus fungus, Mushrooms, bamboo, daylily, kelp, etc.), dehydrated vegetable bags, processing meat products (meat intestines, lunch meat, sausage bacon, etc.), convenient fast food, grain, canned and compressed biscuits, etc.
2) Daily necessities: women’s supplies, personal cleaning supplies, daily chemical supplies, home paper, kitchen supplies, etc.
3) Anti -killing protective supplies: body thermometer, household disinfection, alcohol or alcohol wet towel, N95 and surgical medical masks, disposable gloves, trash cans with lids, etc.
2. Strictly go out during the home period: home isolation staff refuses all visits.Do not wear masks in the isolation room, do not need to leave the isolation room, and wear a N95 mask when leaving the room.For those who have a need for medical treatment or nucleic acid testing, they can go out after being approved by the community medical observation managers to avoid taking public transport and personal protection throughout the process.
3. Avoid contact with others during home isolation: try to minimize contact with other family members, keep a distance of more than 1 meter when contacting, and standardize the N95 mask.If home isolation is a mother -in -law, you can continue to breastfeed baby on the basis of doing a good job of personal protection.Persons who come to the door to send materials should avoid face -to -face with the isolation personnel, and they must not enter the house. They can only put the items outside the door.
(3) Physical activity and exercise
Hometown or disease itself can significantly reduce muscle strength and endurance of positive personnel, and exercise is very important for restoring strength and endurance.Exercise must be carried out under the premise of ensuring safety, and other symptoms of the new crown should be managed at the same time.
"Disoplaid after labor" (referred to as PEM) refers to the fatigue and other symptoms after the body movement, which usually occurs within a few hours or days after physical or mental consumption.After the positive personnel appear PEM, they should avoid the exercise and activities of PEM to effectively preserve their physical fitness.If PEM does not appear after activity, the amount of activity and training can be gradually increased to improve the health status.
The exercise after the recovery of the positive personnel is divided into 5 stages. Different activity suggestions at each stage, and each stage can be maintained at least 7 days to enter the next stage.
If you feel difficult or backward during exercise, you can return to a stage.If any "dangerous signal" (such as chest pain or dizziness) occurs, the activity should be stopped immediately.
The first stage: In the preparation phase, including controlling breathing exercises, gently walking, stretching and balanced exercises.You can stretch your muscles gently when you sit or stand, and you should keep it for 15-20 seconds every time.
The second stage: low -intensity activities, such as walking and minor housework /gardening.
The third stage: carry out medium -intensity activities, such as fast walking, up and down stairs, jogging, introducing inclinedness, resistance exercises.
The fourth stage: performed medium -intensity exercises with coordination and effective skills, such as running, cycling, swimming and dance classes.
Fifth stage: return to the baseline exercise, you can perform normal exercise or sports before the new crown.
(4) Health monitoring content
During home isolation, one morning and evening per day of body temperature measurement and self -health monitoring, and proactively report the monitoring results to community managers;During the symptoms, the community managers reported to the local health administrative department and the disease control institution in the local area in a timely manner.
(5) Symptom diary
During home isolation, you consciously fill in the symptom diary every day.The first column fills the new symptoms or existing symptoms before the positive or positive; the latter columns give each symptom score every day, of which 0 represents does not exist, 1 point represents mild problems, 2 points represent moderate problems, 3 points represent serious serious problems, and 3 points represent serious serious problems.Questions or problems of life.
(6) Conditions to relieve isolation
1. Positive personnel: Daily isolation of home isolation Two or 7 consecutive days of nucleic acid detection negative (CT value ≥ 35) (two detection intervals ≥ 24 hours) and no abnormal symptoms can relieve home isolation.If the nucleic acid detection is positive, it needs to be isolated and nucleic acid detection is performed daily until the nucleic acid detection results are negative for two consecutive days.
2. Personal contact: The close contact person is quarantine 5 Heavenly home, and the 5th day is to detect negative after the nucleic acid detection is negative.
Drug suggestions for home -positive personnel
How to prepare home -cooked medicines?
1. Scientific and rational reserve drugs: In order to deal with the risk of possible respiratory tract infection, positive personnel can scientifically and reasonably reserve some common drugs at home, which is suitable for use within 1 week.As the new crown and other respiratory tract infections may cause the increasing condition of the original chronic disease and basic diseases, if the patient has high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, chronic liver disease, kidney disease or tumorBasic disease medications should be reserved at home for about 1 month.Avoid blind hoarding, causing unnecessary waste.Regularly clean up medicines at home, and timely clean up medicines that exceed the shelf life in time to avoid accidental administration and cause secondary health damage.
2. Positive personnel home -standing medicine: The treatment of respiratory virus infections is mainly symptomatic treatment. Therefore, it is recommended to prepare home medicines based on the principle of "symptomatic medicine", and mainly use simple non -prescription drugs to avoid blind use of antibacterial drugs.
(1) Commonly used drugs to cope with autumn and winter respiratory virus infections: Choose Chinese patent medicines with clear clinical utility: Lianhua Qingjuan capsules, Lianhua Qingjuan particles, golden flowers clear granules, sparse wind detoxification capsules, Huoxiangzheng gas capsules, Xiao Chaihuhuhu, Xiao ChaihuSoup granules and so on.Try not to stack the above drugs as much as possible, only one type, avoid adverse reactions caused by excessive drugs.
1) Lianhua Qing Plague Capsule: Oral.4 capsules at a time, 3 times a day.
2) Lianhua Qing Plague particles: Oral.1 bag at a time, 3 times a day, 7 to 10 days for treatment.
3) Golden Flower Clear Sensing Granules: Take it for boiling water, 1 to 2 bags at a time, 3 times a day, 5 to 7 days for treatment.
(2) Reproduction of heat and analgesic drugs: After the Omikon virus is infected, some patients may have influenza symptoms such as fever, sore throat, headache, and whole body soreness.In your home, you can always have the symptoms of discomfort such as ibuprofen, alcoholic analgesic drugs such as acetaminophenol.Ibuprofen, capsule and mixed suspension such as acetaminol.Children can take oral suspension based on weight: children with 2-6 months can take acetylphenols orally, and children can take ibuprofen or acetamin for more than 6 months;Read the drug instructions carefully.
(3) Cough and phlegm: Some patients will have to varying degrees of cough after infection.If cough affects daily rest and life, it is recommended to use drugs to relieve it. You can choose compound fresh bamboo thresholds, Xuanmu toxic particles, urgent syrup and other cough drugs.If there is more sputum and sputum, it is recommended to use compound licorice tablets, acetylcysteine and other phlegm drugs.
(4) Drugs for other respiratory symptoms: If symptoms such as sore throat, dry pharynx and other discomfort after infection, you can use Huasu tablets, watermelon cream tablets, etc.;Poemin, deedrhtidine, Simetlizine, etc., local medication can also be used for nasal nasal spraying.
3. Precautions for home medicine for special groups
(1) Children: Children, especially infants and young children, are not very complete. After infection, virus is more likely to have symptoms such as fever, sore throat, cough, and weakness than adults. In additionWhen taking medicine for children, parents must not be blindly administered by experience. They should follow the doctor’s advice and read the drug instructions carefully. After taking the medicine, they should closely observe the children’s symptoms and discover abnormal conditions from time to time.
(2) Elderly: Elderly people, especially elderly elderly people, are gradually declining with their age, and their body immunity has gradually declined. Often merged with one or more basic diseases. After infection with respiratory virusSystem damage.Therefore, when the new crown is infected, the condition should be observed closely, and the medicine should be used as soon as possible to avoid serious consequences of delaying the condition.At the same time, the functions of the organs of the elderly have also decreased with their age. After the symptoms of the new crown appear, they should also carefully read the pharmaceutical manual when taking medication, and consult the clinician if necessary.
(3) Maternal maternal: Women during pregnancy and breastfeeding are in a special physiological period. Before taking drugs at home, you should carefully read the drug instructions or consult a specialist.
(4) Those with basic diseases: patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, chronic liver disease, chronic kidney disease, immune defects and other basic diseases, as well as patients with malignant tumors receiving oral drug treatment.Change the dose of drug treatment of basic diseases.After infection with the respiratory virus, it is easy to aggravate basic diseases. Therefore, the condition should be closely observed after the new crown is infected. If there are relevant symptoms, medication should be used under the guidance of a doctor to avoid serious consequences caused by delaying the disease.
4. Suggestions for the prevention and control of Chinese medicine in the new crown -positive home: During the isolation of the positive personnel, you can be under the guidance of the Chinese medicine physician according to your own situation.
Refer to the "New Coronatte Pneumonic Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Plan (Trial Ninth Edition)" and "Hunan Provincial New Coronary Pneumonia Traditional Chinese Medicine Prevention and Treatment Plan (2022 Edition)" for Chinese medicine treatment.
(1) Announced asymptomatic infection (Foreign Evil Crime)
[Symptoms] There are no obvious clinical symptoms, no pneumonia manifestations of pneumonia, and positive testing of new coronary virus nucleic acid.
【Governance Law】 Xin Liangyou Evil
[Main Fang] Yin Qiao San, Sangju Drink, plus or subtract
[Reference Pharmaceutical] Golden and Silver 10g Forsythia 15g Mulberry Leaves 10g Chrysanthemum 10g Banlangen 15g Root 15g Almond 10g Mint (back) 6g licorice 6g
Method: 1 dose daily, decoction 400ml of water, 2 times a day.
[Reference Chinese Medicine] Golden Flower Clear Granules, Lianhua Clear Plague Granules (Capsules), Shuanghuanglian Granules (Oral Liquid), Yinhuang Capsule Capsules, etc.
【Governance Law】 Xin Liangyou Evil
[Main Fang] Add and subtract Yinqiao San
[Reference Pharmaceutical] Gold and Silver Flower 5G Forsythia 5g Mint (Lairer) 3g reed root 10g Coix Seed 15g Banlangen 6g Licorice 3G
Method: 1 dose per day, decoction of 100 ~ 200ml of water, 50 ~ 100ml each time, twice a day.
(2) Light infection
1) Evil criminal lungs
[Symptoms] Heat slightly evil cold, dry cough, less sputum, dry throat and throat, fatigue; red tongue, thin white moss, floating pulse.
【Governance Law】 Xuanfeng Dianetic Evil
[Main Fang] Yinqiao San and Fasse
[Reference Pharmaceutical] Golden and Silver Flower 15G Forsythia 10g Patrofin 6g Root 15g Beef Graduate 10g Mint 10g Mint (Lowen) 6g light bamboo leaf 6g coda 10g talc (fry) 15g board blue root 15g licorice 6g 6g
Method: 1 dose daily, decoction 400ml of water, 2 times a day.
[Reference Chinese Medicine] Golden Flower Clear Granules, Lianhua Clear Plague Granules (Capsules), Shuanghuanglian Granules (Oral Liquid), Yinhuang Case Capsules, Pudi Blue Antiitis Tablets, Clear Lung Detoxifiers, etc.
2) Evil evil stomach
[Symptoms] Poor, stool, nausea, nausea, or abdominal distension, fatigue, thin yellow or yellow greasy tongue coating, number of pulses.
【Governance Law】 Clearing heat and turbidity, rational qi and spleen
[Main Fang] Add and subtract Huoxia Ling Decoction
[Reference Pharmaceutical] Huanglian 6G Hou Pu 10g Pinellia 10g 10G Huoxiang 10G Poria 15g Poriaon 10G Talib (Babes) 20g cardamom 10g Almond 10G Coix Seed 20g Cao 6g Zexie 6g 6g 6g
Method: 1 dose daily, decoction 400ml of water, 2 times a day.
[Reference Chinese Medicine] Huoxiang Zhengqi Granules (Pills), Shuanghuanglian Granules (oral liquid), and dampness and poison particles.
【Governance Law】 Xin Liangyou Evil
[Main Fang] Add and subtract Yinqiao San
[Reference Pharmaceutical] Gold and Silver Flower 5G Forsythia 5G Penweed 3G Bulls 6g Nepeta 5g Lake 5g Light Bamboo Leaf 5g Chrysanthemum 5g 5g Divine Comedy (Babes) 6g bitter almond 6g mint (back) 3g licorice 5g 5g
Method: 1 dose per day, decoction of 100 ~ 200ml of water, 50 ~ 100ml each time, twice a day.
[Reference Chinese Medicine] Lianhua Qing Plague particles, throat -pharyngeal oral liquid (granules), pediatric lung heat cough asthma, children’s Jingxing relieving cough particles, golden leaves defeated poison particles, anecoplasia mission, and lung granules.
Self -management of disease symptoms
(1) Specific breathing
New crown infection is more common after breathing.As the body gradually recovers or the amount of activity gradually increases, the respiratory urgency will improve.When breathing is rapid, the following posture and skills can effectively alleviate the problem of shortness of breathing. If the irreversible respiratory emergencies occur, you must seek medical treatment in time.
1. Relieve the posture of shortness of breathing: The following is several positions that can alleviate shortness of breath. You can try the following positions one by one to determine which one is most effective for yourself.
(1) lying down: Lying flat at the abdomen to help relieve breathing rapids.Although it is not suitable for everyone, it is worth trying.
(2) Slope lying on the slope: Use multiple pillows to support the upper part of the body and the side of the head and neck, and the knees are slightly bent.
(3) Sitting forward: Sitting next to a table, leaning above the waist, lying on the pillow on the desktop, and the arms on the table.
(4) Sit forward (there is no table in front of it): Sitting on a chair, leaning forward, and putting his arm on the knees or chair armrests.
(5) Pioneering forward: When standing, the body is leaning forward, lying on the window sill or other stable support surfaces.
(6) Back leaning on the standing position: Stand back against the wall, place your hands on both sides of the body.
2. Use breathing skills: While using the position, you can also try the following breathing skills to relieve breathing.
(1) Control breathing method: Take comfortable sitting and have sufficient support.One hand is placed on the chest and the other hand is placed on the abdomen.
Slowly inhale from the nose and exhale from the mouth.When inhaling, you will feel that the ups and downs placed on the abdomen are greater than the hands on the chest.Try to make breathing slowly, relaxed, and smooth.
(2) Rhythm breathing method: When you need to perform large physical activity or cause shortage of breathing (such as climbing stairs), this method can be used.Keep in mind that don’t be impatient, you can rest properly.
1) Try to decompose a certain activity into multiple smaller activities, making it easier to complete without being tired or breathless after completion.
2) Inhalery in the previous activity (such as the next step) needed to work hard.Exhale when you are hard, such as exhaling in the process of climbing to the first step.
3) Try to inhale with your nose and exhale with your mouth.
(2) Throat discomfort
Positive personnel may have these throat discomfort: throat pain, irritating cough, and pussy accumulation of phlegm, which need to clear the throat frequently; the sound is weak, or the sound of a hoarse belt gas is more obvious to use the tracheal intubation breathing machine;Feeling the throat and the entire upper respiratory tract is more sensitive to the surrounding environment than before the illness. For example, when you encounter a strong smell, you will cough, feel tight or breathe in your throat;
If the above discomfort appears, try the following methods of self -response. If the symptoms have not improved for a long time, you should consult the opinions of professional medical staff.
1. Supplement enough moisture: A small amount of water in the whole day to keep the sound normal as much as possible.
2. Do not make your sound nervous: Don’t speak with whispering, because this will make the vocal cord tense; try not to speak loudly or shout.
3. Inhale steam: Use a towel to cover the head and inhale steam for 10-15 minutes from the cup of water to alleviate the drying and moisturizing channel.
4. Avoid eating late at night and avoid acid reflux or heartburne by gastroesophageal flow.
5. Stop smoking.
6. Cooperate with other communication methods: When speaking is difficult or uncomfortable, you can communicate through writing, sending text messages or using gestures, so that the vocal cords can be rest.
7. Try to use your nose instead of breathing with your mouth.
8. Try "Stop Cough Exercise": Once you feel the impulse to cough, close your mouth, cover your mouth with your hands, and stuff the cough; at the same time, do swallowing; hold your breath for a small time.When you start your breath again, you breathe and exhale gently with your nose.
9. Change your position when coughing: If you cough at night due to the reflux of the gastrointestinal canal, you can try to lie on the side or raise the pillow to support the head.
10. Boiled sweets: Take a little low sugar boiled sweets, which is conducive to lubricating throat and esophagus and reducing irritating cough.
(3) The problem of swallowing
Positive personnel may have these swallowing problems: they feel difficult when swallowing food and drinks, and swallowing obstructions or pain, and labor effort. This is because the muscle strength and function of helping swallow may weaken.
If a person who has used ventilator in the hospital, the ventlers inserted into the trachea may compress the corresponding tissue and cause bruises, throat and sound swelling.Food residues, oral secretions, etc. are inhaled to trachea and lungs by mistake, which can cause lung infections. In severe cases, even suffocating and life -threatening.
Therefore, you need to pay special attention to these situations of swallowing, and you need to seek medical treatment immediately when the situation is serious.The following techniques can prevent and reduce the problem of swallowing:
1. Keep your body sitting straight while eating or drinking water, and prohibit lying down and drink.
2. Appropriate food texture: Select uniform density, appropriate viscosity, some hardness, not easy to loosen, and easy to deform and not residual food through pharynx.
Softening hard and thickening, avoiding rice paste, sesame paste and other paste -like foods such as the processing of unbridled agent processing, avoid mixing and liquid mixing together, avoid eating soup, boiled rice, eggs, eggs, eggs, eggs, eggs, eggs, eggs, eggs, eggs, eggs, eggs, eggs, eggs, eggs, eggs, eggs, eggs, eggs, eggs, eggs, and eggs.Soups such as soup and liquid mixes together.
3. Pay attention when eating or drinking water.Try to choose a quiet place to eat.Avoid talking when eating or drinking water, because this will open the airway, causing food or drinks to enter the airway by mistake.
4. You should chew slowly when you eat, don’t gobble.
5. Make sure that there is no food in the mouth and eat or drink.If necessary, swallow it once.
6. Keep upright after meals (sitting, standing, walking) for at least 30 minutes.
7. If you cough or sorrow when eating or drinking water, it may be that food or drinks enter the lungs by mistake, and you must consult the medical staff in time.
8. If you feel tired after eating a complete meal, you can eat less meals in the day.
9. Keep your mouth clean by brushing and drinking water.
(4) Nutritional issues
The new crown will affect the appetite and weight of positive personnel in different ways.
If you have been hospitalized for a while, your weight may be reduced; on the contrary, if you experience the new crown sequelae and the amount of activity decreases compared to before, it may increase unnecessary weight.Crimination of sufficient nutrition and timely hydration is essential for early recovery.
1. Healthy and balanced diet: refer to the balanced diet pagoda (2022) for Chinese residents.
Photo source: Chinese Nutrition Society "Chinese Resident Dietary Guide (2022)"
(1) Eat at least 5 copies (1 copy = 80 grams) a day of various fruits and vegetables. Each meal should be vegetables;
(2) Choose all grain food, such as non -processed corn, millet, oats, wheat and brown rice;
(3) Choose foods rich in protein, such as all kinds of beans, fish, eggs and lean meat;
(4) Eat some dairy products or dairy alternatives every day (such as soy products);
(5) Drink plenty of water, the goal is to drink 6-8 glasses of water a day;
(6) Limit the intake of salt, fat, and sugar: The daily intake of salt should be less than 5 grams (about 1 square teaspoon); the daily sugar intake should be less than 50 grams (about 10 square tea spoons);Fat intake should be lower than 30%of the total intake of energy. Choose vegetable oils and fish, avocado, nuts and other unsaturated fat foods.
2. Precautions when the smell or taste decreases
(1) Brush your teeth twice a day to ensure oral hygiene;
(2) Out of smell training, including smelling lemon, roses, cloves and eucalyles every day, twice a day, 20 seconds each;
(3) Try to add vanilla and spices to the food, such as pepper, lemon juice and fresh vanilla; need to be used with caution, because this may increase the reflux of the gastrointestinal canal.
(5) Common psychological problems
It is discovered that the positive virus is full of pressure. Regardless of whether there is severe physical discomfort, it may bring adverse emotions and psychological distress.There are common situations.
That is, there is a feeling of stress, worry, nervousness, irritability and fear.It can be manifested as mental tension, overly worried about the adverse consequences after the infection of the new crown virus; there may be tense physical symptoms such as restlessness, rubbing hands, panic sweating, muscle soreness, headache and dizziness, and these symptoms may be mistaken for them.It is the deterioration of the new crown symptoms and aggravate emotional anxiety, producing psychological sensitivity, which is not conducive to virus turning yin, but also makes these tension symptoms vicious circulation.
(1) Learn to identify anxiety: First of all, you don’t have to panic.Under the premise of actively receiving the treatment of new crown drugs, if the above symptoms are also appeared, you can use the following methods to evaluate whether you have different degrees of anxiety.Perhaps these physical symptoms are anxious physical manifestations.
In the past two weeks, have you encountered the following 7 related issues?
Evaluation method: Select the symbol of your own situation and score.0-4 points are not anxious; 5-9 points are mild anxiety; 10-14 points are moderate anxiety; 15-21 points are severe anxiety.Light and moderate anxiety can be relieved by self -mediation. Medium -to -severe anxiety requires professional psychological counseling and psychotherapy. If necessary, take anti -anxiety drugs under the advice and guidance of a doctor.
(2) Improve the method of response
1) Accepting status quo: Tell yourself that in the face of the positive of the new crown virus, nervousness, worry, fear, fear, frustration, etc. are normal emotional reactions.I believe that in most cases, this emotion will gradually calm down after experiencing the peak, just like table tennis racing, it will be smaller and smaller.We need to leave a buffer space for emotions.
2) Transfer attention: If psychological or physiological discomfort has occurred, do not swipe the screen query to query bad information related to the new crown, stay away from disaster information, transfer attention, and do something relaxed and happy to slowly.For example, chatting with family or friends through online video, reading, housework, listening to music, exercise, handicraft, etc. are all good choices.
3) Seeking professional help: If the anxiety of "I am sick" has affected the normal learning life, you need to seek the help of a professional doctor.You can consult the free consultation hotline phone opened by some institutions. For example, the Psychological Assistance Hotline (0731-852929999) established by the Changsha Health and Health Committee (0731-85292999) will be established 24 hours a day.open.
(3) Do some relaxation training: relaxation helps to save limited energy in your recovery process, help you control anxiety and relax.
1) Positive mindset breathing relaxation method: You don’t have to do anything, you just need to sit down purely, pay attention to observe your breathing, and experience the current life.
① Inhale, slowly and deeply press "1-2-3-4" inhale, and make the air full of chest.Breathing is uniform, comfortable and rhythmic.
② Hold your breath and stop the air slightly after inhaling the air.Feel relaxed, comfortable, and not stretched.
③ exhale, naturally, slowly exhale the air of the bottom of the lungs.At this time, the shoulders and chests, until the muscles, etc. are relaxed and comfortable.At the same time, I imagine that the nervousness, fear, and stress were slowly excluded with exhalation.
2) Meditation of body scanning method: Body scanning is a method of connecting your body with psychological establishment. The purpose is to allow you to eliminate miscellaneous thoughts, focus on a certain part of your body, observe it and feel it.
Please practice in a relaxed and quiet environment.You can lie on a comfortable bed or cushion, or you can choose your favorite sitting or standing position.When you are ready, start your mindfulness of breathing, slowly move your attention to breathing, pay attention to breathing, natural breathing, and pay attention to the tip of the nose and abdomen; inhale, realize that you are inhaling;Qi … Then, slowly withdraw your consciousness from the breath of mindfulness, and prepare to start your body scan.When you scan to a part of your body, you may encounter some nervous areas.If you can relax, relax, if you can’t, let this feeling be natural and allows it to spread, just feel it.For example, transfer the consciousness to a certain part of the right foot. This part is the position of you can touch the floor. Feel what you feel and feel the heel, big toe, and the soles of the right foot.Feel your toe and top of the right foot, and feel the Achilles tendon below and the ankle above.
When you scan your body, focus your attention on your body, and any thoughts or emotions that may be caused by these feelings.You can find some meditation and guidance online to help you scan your body.
Knowing that you have detected the positive of the new coronal virus, it is easy to produce negative ideas and feelings related to survival issues. It can be manifested as low emotional, sadness, sorrowfulness, self -blame, losing confidence in yourself, or because of temporarily unable to restore daily life or daily life or for the time being.I felt pessimistic and frustrated, lost interest around the surroundings, and even had negative concepts and behaviors.
(1) Society evaluation: According to the situation in the past two weeks, please answer the status or frequency of the following description.
Evaluation method: Select the symbol of your own situation and score.0-4 points are not depressed; 5-9 points are mild depression; 10-14 points are moderate depression; 15-19 points are divided into median depression; 20-27 points are severe depression.
The moderate depression emotion can be relieved by self -regulation; medium to severe and severe depression require professional psychological counseling and psychotherapy. If necessary, we need to take antidepressant drugs under the advice and guidance of doctors.
(2) Active response
1) Active positive thinking: Actively pay attention to self -positive information, review how he responds to the difficult days in the past, and believe in and affirm his ability.Pay attention to what you do well in the development of the disease.
Active thinking can mobilize the body’s positive immunity, help collaborate on fighting diseases and quickly turning overcast.
2) Learn to transfer attention: It is easy for people to be caught by negative emotions.Therefore, we can’t immerse ourselves in bad emotions for too long, we need to learn to move attention.For example, find your family or friends to talk about your heartbroken, listen to your favorite music, watch your favorite books, chase your favorite TV series, record the beautiful time of the past, and perform proper physical activity when you allow your body.
3) Seeking professional help: If you feel that the accumulation of negative emotions exceeds his expectations and the accumulation amount exceeds his ability to deal with it, you need to seek the help of professional psychologists and mental health workers.
When people encounter adverse events and cause pressure, they may affect sleep, especially when there is anxiety and / or depression.Insomnia can be manifested as difficulty in falling asleep, sleeping well, shallow sleep, waking up early, or after waking up, unpoppy or uncomfortable, sleepy, fatigue, irritability and angerEssence
(1) Develop good sleeping habits: During the treatment or isolation, it is easy to cause irregular schedules due to the random time of living, and insomnia occurs.
1) Sleep environment: Keep the sleep environment quiet, comfortable, and the temperature is appropriate to avoid light stimulation.
2) Sleep time: Persist in regular schedules, sleep on time every day, get up, and keep your body memory for a long time. When the rest time, you will be sleepy, and the time to get up will naturally wake up, which can help sleep.
3) Sleep habits: Pay attention to the time to limit the bed, the bed is only used to sleep, avoid doing nothing to do in bed, such as watching TV and swipe screens before going to bed; if you can’t sleep in 20 minutesGo to bed and sleep, and slowly establish the connection between bed and sleepy to form conditional reflexes until you can sleep normally; develop good eating habits, do not feel hungry or be full before going to bed; avoid drinking coffee before bedtime;Tea and wine, you can drink a cup of hot milk before going to bed, soak your feet with hot water; or take some sleeping methods, such as slowly breathing and relaxing, positive psychological hints or listening to light music on yourself.
(2) Don’t worry too much about insomnia: too much worry about insomnia often leads to more severe insomnia.To be optimistic, realize that insomnia can be regulated and treated.Moreover, occasionally insomnia will not have much impact on the body, exaggerate the consequences of deteriorating insomnia, and will aggravate anxiety and insomnia; do not deliberately control sleep. In fact, sleep is normal.Sleep a little more, sleep less if you don’t be sleepy, don’t force yourself to do.Of course, if the self -adjusting effect is not good, you need to seek the help of a professional doctor.
(3) Keep proper exercise: exercise appropriate exercise every day, such as slow, jogging or fast, can improve the energy of the day and make it better to fall asleep at night.If you are not suitable for exercise in public places for the time being, you can choose to do some muscles such as muscles and stringing in place.However, it should be noted that it is not advisable to exercise before bedtime, otherwise it will cause the brain to excitement and rise in body temperature, which is not conducive to sleep.
4. Decreased fatigue and thinking ability
(1) Fatigue: fatigue, including physical fatigue and mental fatigue, is a common symptom of recovery in the recovery period of new crown patients.When you are fatigue, you will feel heavy and fatigue, and even a minor activity will feel great physical strength.When mental fatigue, I feel that I have no motivation to do things, and I ca n’t lift it. Even if it is done very simple, it seems to have to fulfill twelve points of spirit; I even feel exhausted.Fatigue can still feel exhausted after completing simple things.
(1) Defining ability boundary: think about how many activities you can do, do not compare your current yourself, you do not need to compare with others, clearly know your current ability, and do things within this scope.Essence
(2) Priority principles: In the current state of limited energy, list the things that need to be completed today are listed according to the principle of importance, and the limited energy is used to complete important things.And think about what can be completed at other times, and what can be completed by others.
(3) Principles of small events: divide complex things into several parts, disassemble large tasks into several small tasks, and arrange tasks in different times.Complete all tasks.For example: Can you sort out a room first instead of cleaning up a complete house?
(4) Rest in time "Charging": The equally important thing as the formulation of the activity plan is to formulate a break and relaxation timetable, so that you have sufficient time to rest "charging", and you can take multiple rest within a time period according to your needs.
5) Timely and effective communication: Communicate your situation in time with your family to let them understand your feelings so that they can better get the understanding and support of the family.
(2) Decrease in thinking ability: You may find that you are difficult to think about, focus on concentration for a long time, the memory is affected, and it becomes indecisive. Even small things become difficult to decide.The decline in thinking ability mainly refers to the decline in the "cognitive" function, including inconsistent attention, decreased memory, decreased information processing speed, and decreased execution function.
1) Create an environment that is not disturbed: try to work in a quiet environment that is not disturbed.You can discuss with your family, and some time of the day is the time you need to work quietly.
2) Complete activity when the state is good: complete high -energy tasks when your state is the best.When you need to complete a work that requires more energy, arrange it when you are not tired.
3) Formulate reasonable goals: Set reasonable goals for yourself, the goal needs to fit your current ability, with clear and reasonable goals to help maintain motivation.
4) Do only one thing at a time: Don’t rush to achieve or try to complete a lot of work at a time, because this may not be suitable for your current state, and it will cause mistakes.
5) Good at using tools: Use laptops, diaries, notes, and calendars as auxiliary methods for memory and daily life.
6) Timely reward yourself: When you complete a small task or achieve a certain goal, reward yourself, such as eating some desserts, drinking drinks, and watching TV.
7) Make brainpower games: You can try the difficult puzzle, text digital game, memory practice or reading, etc., and improve your ability to think about fun.At the beginning, it can be selected to have a certain challenging but completed brainpower game, and gradually increases difficulty.
Pain is a common symptom of patients with new crown rehabilitation. It can occur in specific parts of the body, such as joint pain, muscle pain, headache, chest pain and abdominal pain or pain that spread to the whole body.
Continuous pain (≥ March) may lead to disability and affect sleep, fatigue, emotion, and ability to work or work.If you have specific pain symptoms that are intensified during the activity, such as chest pain, you should consult with medical staff.Suggestions for managing pain:
1. For joints, muscles, or whole body pain, you can take non -prescription analgesic drugs such as acetyamide or ibuprofen.
2. For the invalid pain of over -prescription painkillers, drug therapy can be taken according to the suggestions of medical staff.
3. It is difficult to completely eliminate continuous pain. It can set the goal to make the pain within the controllable range, so that you can maintain the body’s function, sleep well, and participate in the necessary daily activities.
4. Good sleep helps to reduce the symptoms of pain.If the pain interferes with sleep, you can choose to take painkillers when you sleep.
5. Listening to relaxed music or meditation also helps to relieve pain.
6. Adjust the rhythm of daily activities. Mild exercise also helps to release chemicals called endorphin inside the body, which helps relieve pain.
Pain is a very common symptom. Overcoming part of pain can help break the vicious cycle of pain.You can endure mild pain, but don’t endure too much pain, so as not to aggravate the degree of pain and fatigue.
Recognition of severe symptoms
(1) Recognition of severe symptoms
1. The symptoms of most people infected return to the law:
After the new crown, the patients with young and young diseases have milder symptoms at the beginning of the disease. They may feel mild, dry, dry throat, and fatigue.On the 2nd to 3rd day, the symptoms of fever can be started and the symptoms are reached. Some patients can be as high as about 39 ° C. They are sore and fatigue, exacerbate the sore throat, or have a decrease in or disappearing with a sense of taste and smell.On the fourth day, the body temperature began to decline gradually. Many people dropped from the body temperature to normal from this day and no longer fever, but it still sore and itchy, and some people began to run nose and cough.In the subsequent 5-7 days, the body temperature basically dropped to normal; due to the destruction of the respiratory tract mucosa caused by the early virus, the human body was discharged from the cells of necrotic cells through runny nose and cough, so the symptoms of nasal congestion, runny nose, and cough were still available.All the symptoms of about 1 week have begun to improve significantly.The possibility of nucleic acid to yin is very high.
Clinically discovered that people who have been vaccinated with new coronal virus vaccines and completed immune people have a shorter course and a lighter condition after infection.Some elderly people, especially the elderly with basic diseases over the age of 70, are more complicated and need to be observed closely.
2. How to identify the crisis in time
(1) Which groups are prone to critical situations?
The following people are more prone to critical risk after infection with new crowns. During home isolation, they should be closely observed: elderly people greater than 60 years old;
Tube diseases (including hypertension), chronic lung diseases, diabetes, chronic liver and kidney diseases, tumors and other basic diseases; women with advanced pregnancy and perinatal; obese people (physical index greater than 30); severe smokers.
(2) What are the severe early warning signals?
When the positive personnel of home isolation occur when the following symptoms appear, it is recommended to go to a designated medical institution in time: ① After taking the heating medicine, it still has a fever of more than 38.5 ° C and lasts for more than three days.② Obvious breathing difficulties or shortness of breath, breathing, chest pain is obvious when coughing.③ Limor hemorrhoids can be measured (if there is a portable blood oxygen instrument in the home, it can be measured, if the pulse oxygen is less than 93%, it may be hypoxia);
④ Symptoms of the nervous system, such as dizziness or consciousness, convulsions, dismissal or unable to act, unable to wake up or not be awake; ⑤ Symptoms of digestive tract: obvious appetite, vomiting, abdominal pain, or diarrhea (more common in children);
⑥ The mental state is very poor, weak or unstable; children have drowsiness, continuous refusal, difficulty in feeding, continuous diarrhea or vomiting.⑧ Pregnant women have symptoms such as headache, dizziness, panic, qi, or abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding or flow fluid, and abnormal fetal movement.病 The original basic disease is aggravated or unable to control. For example, the original hypertension control is good, and now the blood pressure is increased under the use of the original antihypertensive drug.
(2) The method of seeking medical treatment when there is medical needs
1. Choose a medical hospital
(1) Consultation through Internet hospitals or primary medical personnel (such as community) to check for inspection to determine whether to go to the hospital, while receiving classification guidance.
(2) Persistence nearby principles.Severe patients with a simple new coronal virus infection choose to go to designated medical institutions.Those with basic diseases go directly to specialist hospitals or comprehensive hospitals.
(3) Dial 120 emergency calls in emergency.
2. Select the path of medical treatment
(1) Consultation policies for consultation with the community and consultation hospitals in advance.
(2) Arrange the transportation reasonably and try not to take public transportation such as subway and buses.
(3) Go to the hot teller or emergency room of the selected hospital and receive relevant examinations according to the hospital process.
(4) Obief the hospital arrangement and arrive in the hospital department according to the specified path.
(5) Check in the hospitalization related procedures in accordance with the requirements of the hospital.
3. Preparation for medical treatment
(1) Carry relevant documents such as ID cards, medical insurance cards, consultation cards.
(2) Carry the past medical records, such as outpatient and hospitalization records, various examinations and test results, image data, etc., specially marked their own allergic drugs or other contraindications.
(3) Prepare file bags to facilitate storage of medical records, prescription labels, and inspection results.
(4) Prepare pen and record books, record the doctor’s entrustment, and write symptoms.
(5) Prepare daily life supplies and sufficient masks.
(6) Please accompany your healthy family members, and prepare daily necessities when necessary.
(7) Keep a stable and peaceful mood.
(8) Standardize the mask throughout the process of medical treatment.
Return to work
Before returning to work after recovering the new crown virus, you need to carefully plan and manage it to ensure that you are prepared to fully resume work.You need to be prepared below and then consider returning to work.
1. Self -feel is good, and consult the medical staff and the professional health personnel of the unit to obtain a permission to return to work.
2. Communicate your health with the relevant person in charge of the work unit in advance.
3. Sort out your work responsibilities and evaluate whether you can assume all your duties.
4. Discuss the resumption plan with the leaders. If you can only do part of the work, you can adopt a "phase resume work" to prevent the recurrence of the disease and avoid more absence; regularly evaluate the physical condition and work of the work during work.
5. According to the nature and work nature of their own symptoms, the "resume work in stages" may last for several weeks or months, and fully communicate with the leaders in advance.
6. If self -assessment of the condition may affect work for a long time, you need to consult medical staff and unit leaders, and necessary adjustments should be made according to national policy and legal requirements if necessary.
Social duties of new -crown -positive personnel
Those who have infected the new crown virus must not only take care of themselves, but also bear social responsibility, including learning the law to understand the law, reduce spread, protect others, actively cooperate with the epidemic prevention and control, do the first responsible person of their own healthHealthy and orderly social order.
1. Actively cooperate with the epidemic prevention and control.Once it is confirmed as positive, it is necessary to immediately take isolation measures, standardize wearing masks, do a good job of self -protection, cooperate with the current tone, and take the initiative to implement follow -up prevention measures.
2. Standardize wearing masks.When indoor personnel intensive places, elevators or public transportation, symptoms such as fever, dry cough, fatigue, sore throat, etc. When medical institutions have appeared, wearing N95 masks should be regulated when medical institutions are medical treatment.The mask must be replaced in time, and the cumulative time of each mask does not exceed 8 hours; the abandoned mask should not be thrown at will, and it must be regulated.
3. Washing hands and disinfection.During the home isolation, touch the mouth, nose, nose, cough or sneezing, clean up garbage, contact public facilities such as express delivery, elevator buttons, door handles, and other public facilities.The toilet toilet should be covered with the toilet cover before flushing water to keep the water seal.
4. Frequent ventilation.When the home isolates, the room should be closed and the window is opened separately.
5. Try not to go out.Try not to contact others during home isolation to reduce the risk of communication.When symptoms such as fever, dry cough, do not take illness, go to school, do not participate in clustered activities, do not take public transport, do not need to go in and out of public places to reduce the risk of communication.
6. Develop hygiene habits.Pay attention to healthy etiquette, take necessary cover measures when coughing and sneezing.Strengthen physical exercise, ensure sufficient sleep, maintain health, healthy diet, quit smoking and alcohol.
7. Actively learn health knowledge.Actively learn the scientific knowledge of the new crown virus, pay attention to the official authoritative release of information, maintain calmness, do not believe in rumors, rumors, promote positive energy, and jointly maintain healthy and orderly social order.
8. Actively learn legal knowledge.Actively study related legal knowledge, study the "Public Security Management Law" and "Criminal Law" equal to the laws and regulations related to epidemic prevention and control. While do not violate the law, you must also understand the routine of immune -related fraud and beware of being deceived.
Content source: The editor -in -chief of Li Zhihong and Chai Xiangping, the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, and 11 other personnel such as Zhang Mengxi and Wang Yina participated in the "New Crown -Positive Personnel Self -Customs Book".